A curated list of resources dedicated to Natural Language Processing
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- Research Summaries and Trends
- Prominent NLP Research Labs
- Annotation Tools
- NLP in Korean
- NLP in Arabic
- NLP in Chinese
- NLP in German
- NLP in Spanish
- NLP in Indic Languages
- NLP in Thai
- NLP in Danish
- NLP in Vietnamese
- NLP for Dutch
- NLP in Indonesian
- Other Languages
Research Summaries and Trends
- NLP-Overview is an up-to-date overview of deep learning techniques applied to NLP, including theory, implementations, applications, and state-of-the-art results. This is a great Deep NLP Introduction for researchers.
- NLP-Progress tracks the progress in Natural Language Processing, including the datasets and the current state-of-the-art for the most common NLP tasks
- NLP's ImageNet moment has arrived
- ACL 2018 Highlights: Understanding Representation and Evaluation in More Challenging Settings
- Four deep learning trends from ACL 2017. Part One: Linguistic Structure and Word Embeddings
- Four deep learning trends from ACL 2017. Part Two: Interpretability and Attention
- Highlights of EMNLP 2017: Exciting Datasets, Return of the Clusters, and More!
- Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing (NLP): Advancements & Trends
- Survey of the State of the Art in Natural Language Generation
Prominent NLP Research Labs
- The Berkeley NLP Group - Notable contributions include a tool to reconstruct long dead languages, referenced here and by taking corpora from 637 languages currently spoken in Asia and the Pacific and recreating their descendant.
- Language Technologies Institute, Carnegie Mellon University - Notable projects include Avenue Project, a syntax driven machine translation system for endangered lnaguages like Quechua and Aymara and previously, Noah's Ark which created AQMAR to imporve NLP tools for Arabic.
- NLP research group, Columbia University - Responsible for creating BOLT ( interactive error handling for speech translation systems) and an un-named project to characterize laughter in dialogue.
- The Center or Language and Speech Processing, John Hopkins University - Recently in the news for developing speech recognition software to create a diagnostic test or Parkinson's Disease, here.
- Computational Linguistics and Information Processing Group, University of Maryland - Notable contributions include Human-Computer Cooperation or Word-by-Word Question Answering and modeling development of phonetic representations.
- Penn Natural Language Processing, University of Pennsylvania- Famous for creating the Penn Treebank.
- The Stanford Nautral Language Processing Group- One of the top NLP research labs in the world, notable for creating Stanford CoreNLP and their coreference resolution system
General Machine Learning
- Machine Learning 101 from Google's Senior Creative Engineer explains Machine Learning for engineer's and executives alike
- AI Playbook - a16z AI playbook is a great link to forward to your managers or content for your presentations
- Ruder's Blog by Sebastian Ruder for commentary on the best of NLP Research
Introductions and Guides to NLP
- Understand & Implement Natural Language Processing
- NLP in Python - Collection of Github notebooks
- Natural Language Processing: An Introduction - Oxford
- Deep Learning for NLP with Pytorch
- Hands-On NLTK Tutorial - NLTK Tutorials, Jupyter notebooks
Blogs and Newsletters
- Deep Learning, NLP, and Representations
- The Illustrated BERT, ELMo, and co. (How NLP Cracked Transfer Learning) and The Illustrated Transformer
- Natural Language Processing by Hal Daumé III
- arXiv: Natural Language Processing (Almost) from Scratch
- Karpathy's The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Recurrent Neural Networks
- Machine Learning Mastery: Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing
Videos and Online Courses
- Deep Natural Language Processing - Lectures series from Oxford
- Deep Learning for Natural Language Processing (cs224-n) - Richard Socher and Christopher Manning's Stanford Course
- Neural Networks for NLP - Carnegie Mellon Language Technology Institute there
- Deep NLP Course by Yandex Data School, covering important ideas from text embedding to machine translation including sequence modeling, language models and so on.
- fast.ai Code-First Intro to Natural Language Processing - This covers a blend of traditional NLP topics (including regex, SVD, naive bayes, tokenization) and recent neural network approaches (including RNNs, seq2seq, GRUs, and the Transformer), as well as addressing urgent ethical issues, such as bias and disinformation. Find the Jupyter Notebooks here
- Speech and Language Processing - free, by Prof. Dan Jurafsy
- Natural Language Processing - free, NLP notes by Dr. Jacob Eisenstein at GeorgiaTech
- [NLP with PyTorch] - Brian & Delip Rao
- Text Mining in R
- Natural Language Processing with Python
- Knwl.js - A Natural Language Processor in JS
- Retext - Extensible system for analyzing and manipulating natural language
- NLP Compromise - Natural Language processing in the browser
- Natural - general natural language facilities for node
- Poplar - A web-based annotation tool for natural language processing (NLP)
- NLP.js - An NLP library for building bots
Python - Python NLP Libraries | Back to Top
- TextBlob - Providing a consistent API for diving into common natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Stands on the giant shoulders of Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) and Pattern, and plays nicely with both
- spaCy - Industrial strength NLP with Python and Cython
- textacy - Higher level NLP built on spaCy
- gensim - Python library to conduct unsupervised semantic modelling from plain text
- scattertext - Python library to produce d3 visualizations of how language differs between corpora
- GluonNLP - A deep learning toolkit for NLP, built on MXNet/Gluon, for research prototyping and industrial deployment of state-of-the-art models on a wide range of NLP tasks.
- AllenNLP - An NLP research library, built on PyTorch, for developing state-of-the-art deep learning models on a wide variety of linguistic tasks.
- PyTorch-NLP - NLP research toolkit designed to support rapid prototyping with better data loaders, word vector loaders, neural network layer representations, common NLP metrics such as BLEU
- Rosetta - Text processing tools and wrappers (e.g. Vowpal Wabbit)
- PyNLPl - Python Natural Language Processing Library. General purpose NLP library for Python. Also contains some specific modules for parsing common NLP formats, most notably for FoLiA, but also ARPA language models, Moses phrasetables, GIZA++ alignments.
- jPTDP - A toolkit for joint part-of-speech (POS) tagging and dependency parsing. jPTDP provides pre-trained models for 40+ languages.
- BigARTM - a fast library for topic modelling
- Snips NLU - A production ready library for intent parsing
- Chazutsu - A library for downloading&parsing standard NLP research datasets
- Word Forms - Word forms can accurately generate all possible forms of an English word
- Multilingual Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) - A multilingual and extensible document clustering pipeline
- NLP Architect - A library for exploring the state-of-the-art deep learning topologies and techniques for NLP and NLU
- Flair - A very simple framework for state-of-the-art multilingual NLP built on PyTorch. Includes BERT, ELMo and Flair embeddings.
- Kashgari - Simple, Keras-powered multilingual NLP framework, allows you to build your models in 5 minutes for named entity recognition (NER), part-of-speech tagging (PoS) and text classification tasks. Includes BERT and word2vec embedding.
- FARM - FARM makes cutting-edge transfer learning simple and helps you to leverage pretrained language models for your own NLP tasks.
- Rita DSL - a DSL, loosely based on RUTA on Apache UIMA. Allows to define language patterns (rule-based NLP) which are then translated into spaCy, or if you prefer less features and lightweight - regex patterns.
- TextBlob - Providing a consistent API for diving into common natural language processing (NLP) tasks. Stands on the giant shoulders of Natural Language Toolkit (NLTK) and Pattern, and plays nicely with both
C++ - C++ Libraries | Back to Top
- MIT Information Extraction Toolkit - C, C++, and Python tools for named entity recognition and relation extraction
- CRF++ - Open source implementation of Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) for segmenting/labeling sequential data & other Natural Language Processing tasks.
- CRFsuite - CRFsuite is an implementation of Conditional Random Fields (CRFs) for labeling sequential data.
- BLLIP Parser - BLLIP Natural Language Parser (also known as the Charniak-Johnson parser)
- colibri-core - C++ library, command line tools, and Python binding for extracting and working with basic linguistic constructions such as n-grams and skipgrams in a quick and memory-efficient way.
- ucto - Unicode-aware regular-expression based tokenizer for various languages. Tool and C++ library. Supports FoLiA format.
- libfolia - C++ library for the FoLiA format
- frog - Memory-based NLP suite developed for Dutch: PoS tagger, lemmatiser, dependency parser, NER, shallow parser, morphological analyzer.
- MeTA - MeTA : ModErn Text Analysis is a C++ Data Sciences Toolkit that facilitates mining big text data.
- Mecab (Japanese)
- StarSpace - a library from Facebook for creating embeddings of word-level, paragraph-level, document-level and for text classification
Java - Java NLP Libraries | Back to Top
- Stanford NLP
- Word2vec in Java
- ReVerb Web-Scale Open Information Extraction
- OpenRegex An efficient and flexible token-based regular expression language and engine.
- CogcompNLP - Core libraries developed in the U of Illinois' Cognitive Computation Group.
- MALLET - MAchine Learning for LanguagE Toolkit - package for statistical natural language processing, document classification, clustering, topic modeling, information extraction, and other machine learning applications to text.
- RDRPOSTagger - A robust POS tagging toolkit available (in both Java & Python) together with pre-trained models for 40+ languages.
Scala - Scala NLP Libraries | Back to Top
- Saul - Library for developing NLP systems, including built in modules like SRL, POS, etc.
- ATR4S - Toolkit with state-of-the-art automatic term recognition methods.
- tm - Implementation of topic modeling based on regularized multilingual PLSA.
- word2vec-scala - Scala interface to word2vec model; includes operations on vectors like word-distance and word-analogy.
- Epic - Epic is a high performance statistical parser written in Scala, along with a framework for building complex structured prediction models.
R - R NLP Libraries | Back to Top
- text2vec - Fast vectorization, topic modeling, distances and GloVe word embeddings in R.
- wordVectors - An R package for creating and exploring word2vec and other word embedding models
- RMallet - R package to interface with the Java machine learning tool MALLET
- dfr-browser - Creates d3 visualizations for browsing topic models of text in a web browser.
- dfrtopics - R package for exploring topic models of text.
- sentiment_classifier - Sentiment Classification using Word Sense Disambiguation and WordNet Reader
- jProcessing - Japanese Natural Langauge Processing Libraries, with Japanese sentiment classification
- Clojure-openNLP - Natural Language Processing in Clojure (opennlp)
- Infections-clj - Rails-like inflection library for Clojure and ClojureScript
- postagga - A library to parse natural language in Clojure and ClojureScript
- whatlang — Natural language recognition library based on trigrams
- snips-nlu-rs - A production ready library for intent parsing
NLP as API with higher level functionality such as NER, Topic tagging and so on | Back to Top
- Wit-ai - Natural Language Interface for apps and devices
- IBM Watson's Natural Language Understanding - API and Github demo
- Amazon Comprehend - NLP and ML suite covers most common tasks like NER, tagging, and sentiment analysis
- Google Cloud Natural Language API - Syntax Analysis, NER, Sentiment Analysis, and Content tagging in atleast 9 languages include English and Chinese (Simplified and Traditional).
- ParallelDots - High level Text Analysis API Service ranging from Sentiment Analysis to Intent Analysis
- Microsoft Cognitive Service
- Textalytic - Natural Language Processing in the Browser with sentiment analysis, named entity extraction, POS tagging, word frequencies, topic modeling, word clouds, and more
- GATE - General Architecture and Text Engineering is 15+ years old, free and open source
- Anafora is free and open source, web-based raw text annotation tool
- brat - brat rapid annotation tool is an online environment for collaborative text annotation
- doccano - doccano is free, open-source, and provides annotation features for text classification, sequence labeling and sequence to sequence
- tagtog, team-first web tool to find, create, maintain, and share datasets - costs $
- prodigy is an annotation tool powered by active learning, costs $
- LightTag - Hosted and managed text annotation tool for teams, costs $
- rstWeb - open source local or online tool for discourse tree annotations
- GitDox - open source server annotation tool with GitHub version control and validation for XML data and collaborative spreadsheet grids
Thumb Rule: fastText >> GloVe > word2vec
fasttext - implementation - paper - explainer blog
Sentence and Language Model Based Word Embeddings
- ElMo - Deep Contextualized Word Represenations - PyTorch implmentation - TF Implementation
- ULimFit - Universal Language Model Fine-tuning for Text Classification by Jeremy Howard and Sebastian Ruder
- InferSent - Supervised Learning of Universal Sentence Representations from Natural Language Inference Data by facebook
- CoVe - Learned in Translation: Contextualized Word Vectors
- Pargraph vectors - from Distributed Representations of Sentences and Documents. See doc2vec tutorial at gensim
- sense2vec - on word sense disambiguation
- Skip Thought Vectors - word representation method
- Adaptive skip-gram - similar approach, with adaptive properties
- Sequence to Sequence Learning - word vectors for machine translation
Question Answering and Knowledge Extraction
- DrQA - Open Domain Question Answering work by Facebook Research on Wikipedia data
- Document-QA - Simple and Effective Multi-Paragraph Reading Comprehension by AllenAI
- Template-Based Information Extraction without the Templates
- Privee: An Architecture for Automatically Analyzing Web Privacy Policies
- nlp-datasets great collection of nlp datasets
Multilingual NLP Frameworks
- UDPipe is a trainable pipeline for tokenizing, tagging, lemmatizing and parsing Universal Treebanks and other CoNLL-U files. Primarily written in C++, offers a fast and reliable solution for multilingual NLP processing.
- NLP-Cube : Natural Language Processing Pipeline - Sentence Splitting, Tokenization, Lemmatization, Part-of-speech Tagging and Dependency Parsing. New platform, written in Python with Dynet 2.0. Offers standalone (CLI/Python bindings) and server functionality (REST API).
NLP in Korean
- KoNLPy - Python package for Korean natural language processing.
- Mecab (Korean) - C++ library for Korean NLP
- KoalaNLP - Scala library for Korean Natural Language Processing.
- KoNLP - R package for Korean Natural language processing
Blogs and Tutorials
- KAIST Corpus - A corpus from the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology in Korean.
- Naver Sentiment Movie Corpus in Korean
- Chosun Ilbo archive - dataset in Korean from one of the major newspapers in South Korea, the Chosun Ilbo.
NLP in Arabic
- goarabic - Go package for Arabic text processing
- PyArabic - Python libraries for Arabic
- RFTokenizer - trainable Python segmenter for Arabic, Hebrew and Coptic
- Multidomain Datasets - Largest Available Multi-Domain Resources for Arabic Sentiment Analysis
- LABR - LArge Arabic Book Reviews dataset
- Arabic Stopwords - A list of Arabic stopwords from various resources
NLP in Chinese
- jieba - Python package for Words Segmentation Utilities in Chinese
- SnowNLP - Python package for Chinese NLP
- FudanNLP - Java library for Chinese text processing
NLP in German
- German-NLP - Curated list of open-access/open-source/off-the-shelf resources and tools developed with a particular focus on German
NLP in Spanish
- Columbian Political Speeches
- Copenhagen Treebank
- Spanish Billion words corpus with Word2Vec embeddings
- Compilation of Spanish Unannotated Corpora
Word and Sentence Embeddings
- Spanish Word Embeddings Computed with Different Methods and from Different Corpora
- Spanish Word Embeddings Computed from Large Corpora and Different Sizes Using fastText
- Spanish Sentence Embeddings Computed from Large Corpora Using sent2vec
- Beto - BERT for Spanish
NLP in Indic languages
Data, Corpora and Treebanks
- Hindi Dependency Treebank - A multi-representational multi-layered treebank for Hindi and Urdu
- Universal Dependencies Treebank in Hindi
- Parallel Universal Dependencies Treebank in Hindi - A smaller part of the above-mentioned treebank.
- ISI FIRE Stopwords List (Hindi and Bangla)
- Peter Graham's Stopwords List
- NLTK Corpus 60k Words POS Tagged, Bangla, Hindi, Marathi, Telugu
- Hindi Movie Reviews Dataset ~1k Samples, 3 polarity classes
- BBC News Hindi Dataset 4.3k Samples, 14 classes
- IIT Patna Hindi ABSA Dataset 5.4k Samples, 12 Domains, 4k aspect terms, aspect and sentence level polarity in 4 classes
- Bangla ABSA 5.5k Samples, 2 Domains, 10 aspect terms
- IIT Patna Movie Review Sentiment Dataset 2k Samples, 3 polarity labels
Corpora/Datasets that need a login/access can be gained via email
- SAIL 2015 Twitter and Facebook labelled sentiment samples in Hindi, Bengali, Tamil, Telugu.
- IIT Bombay NLP Resources Sentiwordnet, Movie and Tourism parallel labelled corpora, polarity labelled sense annotated corpus, Marathi polarity labelled corpus.
- TDIL-IC aggregates a lot of useful resources and provides access to otherwise gated datasets
Language Models and Word Embeddings
- Hindi2Vec and nlp-for-hindi ULMFIT style languge model
- IIT Patna Bilingual Word Embeddings Hi-En
- Fasttext word embeddings in a whole bunch of languages, trained on Common Crawl
- Hindi and Bengali Word2Vec
- Hindi and Urdu Elmo Model
Libraries and Tooling
- Multi-Task Deep Morphological Analyzer Deep Network based Morphological Parser for Hindi and Urdu
- Anoop Kunchukuttan 18 Languages, whole host of features from tokenization to translation
- SivaReddy's Dependency Parser Dependency Parser and Pos Tagger for Kannada, Hindi and Telugu. Python3 Port
- iNLTK - A Natural Language Toolkit for Indic Languages (Indian subcontinent languages) built on top of Pytorch/Fastai, which aims to provide out of the box support for common NLP tasks.
NLP in Thai
- PyThaiNLP - Thai NLP in Python Package
- JTCC - A character cluster library in Java
- CutKum - Word segmentation with deep learning in TensorFlow
- Thai Language Toolkit - Based on a paper by Wirote Aroonmanakun in 2002 with included dataset
- SynThai - Word segmentation and POS tagging using deep learning in Python
- Inter-BEST - A text corpus with 5 million words with word segmentation
- Prime Minister 29 - Dataset containing speeches of the current Prime Minister of Thailand
NLP in Danish
- Named Entity Recognition for Danish
- DaNLP - NLP resources in Danish
- Awesome Danish - A curated list of awesome resources for Danish language technology
NLP in Vietnamese
- underthesea - Vietnamese NLP Toolkit
- vn.vitk - A Vietnamese Text Processing Toolkit
- VnCoreNLP - A Vietnamese natural language processing toolkit
- Vietnamese treebank - 10,000 sentences for the constituency parsing task
- BKTreeBank - a Vietnamese Dependency Treebank
- UD_Vietnamese - Vietnamese Universal Dependency Treebank
- VIVOS - a free Vietnamese speech corpus consisting of 15 hours of recording speech by AILab
- VNTQcorpus(big).txt - 1.75 million sentences in news
NLP for Dutch
- python-frog - Python binding to Frog, an NLP suite for Dutch. (pos tagging, lemmatisation, dependency parsing, NER)
- SimpleNLG_NL - Dutch surface realiser used for Natural Language Generation in Dutch, based on the SimpleNLG implementation for English and French.
NLP in Indonesian
- Kompas and Tempo collections at ILPS
- PANL10N for PoS tagging: 39K sentences and 900K word tokens
- IDN for PoS tagging: This corpus contains 10K sentences and 250K word tokens
- Indonesian Treebank and Universal Dependencies-Indonesian
- IndoSum for text summarization and classification both
- Wordnet-Bahasa - large, free, semantic dictionary
Libraries & Embedding
- Natural language toolkit bahasa
- Indonesian Word Embedding
- Pretrained Indonesian fastText Text Embedding trained on Wikipedia
NLP in Urdu
- Collection of Urdu datasets for POS, NER and NLP tasks
- Natural Language Processing library for (
- Russian: pymorphy2 - a good pos-tagger for Russian
- Asian Languages: Thai, Lao, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean ICU Tokenizer implementation in ElasticSearch
- Ancient Languages: CLTK: The Classical Language Toolkit is a Python library and collection of texts for doing NLP in ancient languages
- Hebrew: NLPH_Resources - A collection of papers, corpora and linguistic resources for NLP in Hebrew
Credits for initial curators and sources
License - CC0